Exploring noise, degeneracy, and determinism in biological networks with the einet package

Brennan Klein, Anshuman Swain, Travis Byrum,Samuel V. Scarpino, William F. Fagan
British Ecological Society
January 19, 2022


  1. Understanding noise in networks and finding the right scale to represent a system are important problems in network biology. Most research focuses on the raw, micro-scale network from data/simulations and seldom explores the scale-dependence of properties.
  2. Here, we introduce the einet package, which looks at the most informative scale in a biological network using recent concepts from information theory and network science.
  3. einet uses two metrics: Effective information, which measures the interplay between degeneracy and determinism in a network’s edges, and causal emergence, which finds the scale of the network with the highest effective information.
  4. einet is available in R and Python and provides tools to explore noise and scale dependency in networks as well as compare information flow and noise across networks.

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